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EPS & Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment

Radiofrequency Ablation treatment Cost in India|

EPS & Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment

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EPS and RFA are indicated in patients with Heart Rhythm disorders (Arrhythmia). EPS (Electrophysiology Study) & RFA (Radiofrequency Ablation) are covered under the branch of medicine called Interventional cardiology and the specialist who conducts them is referred to as Cardiac Electrophysiologists or Interventional Cardiologist.  


EPS and RFA are performed in Cath lab.


EPS is an invasive intracardiac test or a minimally invasive procedure, just like Angiography.


It studies the electrical activity within the heart and deviation in the electrical impulses from normal, its origin and path and helps in determining the most appropriate treatment modality to correct that defect.


It is an important investigation for the diagnosis of the rhythm disorder to the heart.


The treatment option may fall into the following categories such as treatment with medicines only, Radiofrequency ablation, placement of a pacemaker, implantation of ICD (Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator) or surgery. Your specialist is the best person to determine the best tretment option for you based on your test results and clinical examination.


This test can be performed alone or in coordination with some other procedure or treatment such as placement of a pacemaker, Implantation of ICD (Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator) or Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)


Radiofrequency ablation, also referred to as Catheter ablation, is a minimally invasive medical procedure in which small faulty portion of the electrical conduction system of heart, which is causing abnormal or irregular heartbeats, is destroyed or scarred using the heat generated from medium frequency alternating current (350 to 500 KHz). This procedure restores the normal rhythm of the heart by using radiofrequency energy.


RFA is used to treat irregular heart beat or loss of heart rhythm (Arrhythmia) when medicines fail to work effectively or patient is not able to tolerate them.


Medicines are prescribed for abnormal heart rhythm to control the faulty heart tissue whereas RFA destroys the abnormal cardiac tissue that is responsible for Arrhythmia. RFA is a safe procedure that offers good results. It takes 2 to 4 hours for the procedure to complete.


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Q1 What is EPS?


A1 Cardiac Electrophysiology is a rapidly progressing and promising field of medicine. Intracardiac (within heart) Electrophysiology study (EPS) is a procedure that helps your specialist (Interventional Cardiologist) to precisely locate the cardiac tissue which is responsible for abnormal rhythm of the heart (Arrhythmia). This test studies and maps the electrical activity of the heart and find the cause and path of aberrant electrical impulses.


Q2 Who is advised to get EPS done?


A2 Electrophysiology study is usually recommended in patients with abnormal heart rhythm to find out the cause and origin of the deviation from normal electrical activity within heart and also to decide on the most appropriate treatment modality to be used.


Q3 Where is EPS test done?


A3 EPS test is done in a special room referred to as Electrophysiology Lab or Cath Lab.


Q4 How is EPS test done?


A4  Electrodes are placed in the heart to study its electrical activity. This test may be combined with other procedures such as RFA (Radiofrequency Ablation) or placing a pacemaker. EPS is not only used as an investigation but also for treatment.


Q5 How does EPS work?


A5 Under normal healthy condition, heart electrical activity causes cardiac muscles to contract in a coordinated manner. However, when this electrical activity gets disturbed due to some cause, it leads to heart rhythm disorder. The heart no longer beats in a      coordinated manner and is responsible for various symptoms that the patient will experience as a result.


The goal of EP study is to precisely identify the region of the heart where the abnormal electrical impulse is generating or deviating, make the diagnosis and treat the heart rhythm defect alongwith the required treatment or procedure.


ECG and Holter often fail to detect the rhythm disorders of the heart as arrhythmia is irregular and unpredictable and EPS has proved a beneficial investigation to diagnose and treat them.


Q6 What are the uses of EPS?


A6 Electrophysiology study of the heart serves the following purpose:


  • Identify the cause or source of the heart rhythm disorder (Makes the diagnosis)

  • Checks the efficiency of the medications being given to treat the heart rhythm disorders(Arrhythmia) Monitors the impact of the treatment

  • Predict the risk of any impending cardiac event such as sudden cardiac arrest

  • Determine the type of treatment modality that may be required such as Artificial pacemaker or Radiofrequency ablation



Q7 What is RFA?


A7 RFA stands for Radiofrequency Ablation. It is a minimally invasive procedure in which radiofrequency energy is used to heat and destroy a small area of the heart tissue which is responsible for abnormal heartbeat (Arrhythmia), eventually leading to the restoration of the normal heart rhythm. It does not affect the rest of the heart.


Q8 Why is Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) done for Arrhythmia?


A8 Under normal conditions, when the heart is working efficiently, electrical signals generate from specialized conduction tissue of the heart and there is a set path for these electrical signals to follow which causes rhythmic well coordinated contraction of the heart muscles and its efficient functioning of heart chambers to pump blood through them.


However, when these electrical signals are disorganized due to some reason, it causes heart rhythm disorder and ineffective pumping action of the heart leading to symptoms such as fainting, breathlessness and weakness or a pounding heart.


Heart rhythm disorders may be caused either due to faulty place of origin of the electrical signals or deviation in their travel path.


Normally, medicines work well in order to take care of the rhythm disorders of the heart for most of the patients. However, if they fail to provide any relief or cause side effects, your doctor may suggest Catheter ablation for you.


Q9 How is Catheter ablation done? 


A9 Your doctor will insert a long flexible thin tube, referred to as catheter, in a vein in your groin, upper thigh, arm or neck. Pain medicine will be given to you. The doctor will then thread the catheter towards your heart till it reaches the area that is causing abnormal electrical signals. The energy which could be extreme cold or radiofrequency energy (similar to microwave heat) is delivered to the desired area to destroy it and create a scar. Electrical signals do not pass through the damaged area and thereby helps restore normal rhythm in the heart. The procedure is carried out in a Cath lab and it may take 3 to 6 hours. You will be discharge from the hospital the same day or may require an overnight stay for close supervision. Soreness in the cut made by the doctor at the place of insertion of the catheter may be sore for around a week.


Q10 What may be the risk involved in catheter ablation?


A10 The risks are few and rare. They may be infection or bleeding at the site where the long flexible thin tube called catheter was inserted.


Q11 What is the difference between cardiac ablation and catheter ablation?


A11 Catheter ablation is a type of cardiac ablation procedure.


Cardiac ablation is a procedure to destroy or scar a tissue in your heart to that is responsible for generating abnormal electrical signals or causing their deviation from their normal conduction path eventually leading to heart rhythm disorders(Arrhythmia) such as Atrial Fibrillation, Atrial flutter, Supraventricular tachycardias and Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome. It helps in the restoration of the normal heart rhythm.

Cardiac ablation can be classified into two types based on how the ablation (aberrant tissue is destroyed) is achieved:


Catheter ablation and Surgical ablation


Catheter ablation comprises of a thing flexible long tube, referred to as a catheter. Catheter is inserted through a blood vessel in the groin or neck and thereafter guided into the heart where upon reaching the desired tissue of the heart responsible for the abnormal electrical activity of the heart, it releases heat energy to scar and destroy this tissue. 

Catheter ablation is a minimally invasive procedure, not a surgery.

Catheter ablation is further classified into

Radiofrequency ablation and Cryoablation


Radiofrequency ablation In this procedure, catheters delivers radiofrequency energy, similar to microwave heat, to destroy and create circular scars around each vein or veins.


Cryoablation Single catheter with a balloon at its tip is utilized to deliver a substance to the aberrent tissue that destroys or scars the tissue by freezing it. Here, extreme cold is used to destroy the abnormal heart tissue.


Surgical ablation, as the name suggests, is a surgery. Here, the chest is cut open to scar or destroy the heart tissue responsible for causing abnormal electrical signals.


They are of three types namely, Maze procedure, Mini Maze procedure and convergent procedure.


Maze procedure This procedure involves making several small incisions in the upper part of the heart. It is usually carried out while performing the open heart surgery for some other reason such as bypass or valve replacement surgery, followed by stitching them back causing scars to form. It stops the abnormal electrical signals.


Minimaze procedure As the name suggests, it is less invasive than the conventional Maze procedure. It does not involve cutting open the chest. Instead, the surgeon makes several small incisions in between the ribs to guide the catheters in the heart in order to create scars in the desired heart tissue area, using the process of radiofrequency ablation or Cryoablation. This type of surgery can also be Robot Assisted surgery.


Convergent procedure

This procedure combines Mini maze and catheter ablation. Radiofrequency ablation is done in the pulmonary vein. Also, a small cut is made under breast bone to use radiofrequency energy on the outside of the heart.


Q12 When is Cardiac ablation indicated?


A12 Cardiac ablation as a treatment fo rhythm disorders of heart is never a first choice. 


It is indicated only when 


  • Medicines have proven futile in controlling arrhythmia

  • Medicines given for treatment of arrhythmia have caused serious side effects.

  • Patient has Wolff-parkinson-White syndrome or SVT (Supraventricular Tachycardia), type of rhythm disorders that respond well to ablation and hence ablation may be carried out as a first line or treatment for such patients.

  • Patients are at high risk for complications due to arrhythmia such as sudden cardiac arrest.


Q13 What can be expected after the catheter ablation procedure?


A13 Generally, the patient is discharge from the hospital the same day or may need an overnight stay in the hospital. Patient is closely watched over few hours for his vitals such as Blood pressure and heart rate.


Q14 Which are the best hospitals for EPS & RFATreatment in India?



A14 List of Best Hospitals for EPS & RFA Treatment in India


Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi


Max Hospital, Saket


Medanta Medicity, Gurugram, Delhi-NCR


Artemis Hospital, Gurugram, Delhi-NCR


Jaypee Hospital, Noida, Delhi-NCR


Venkateshwar Hospital, Delhi


Columbia Asia Hospital, Gurgaon, Delhi NCR


Baby Memorial Hospital, Kozhikode, Kerala


Wockhardt Hospital, Mumbai







  • Most affordable cost coupled with quality.

  • World class hospitals with state of the art infrastructure.

  • No waiting period.

  • Globally trained Interventional Cardiologists with decades of experience in carrying out the procedure with competence and ease.

  • Great ambience

  • Compassionate staff to look after

  • Hospitals accredited with international organizations such as JCI (Joint commission International) for quality standards.

  • Language no barrier. English speaking people and if required, translators are available for your convenience

  • Most economical accommodation available at a walking distance from the hospital. Wide range of options starting from guest house, service apartments to five star hotels, best suited to your budget and choice.

  • Good flight connectivity

  • India has a diverse and rich cultural heritage. You can witness its beauty and uniqueness. It offers most conducive environment for recuperation.



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Medical Tourism in India FAQs





Dr Anil Dhall

MBBS, MD,DM (Cardiology)

Director, Cardiovascular Sciences, Sarvodaya Hospital & Research Center

Faridabad, Haryana

Dr K.K Saxena

MBBS, MD, DM (Cardiology)

Interventional Cardiologist

Senior Consultant, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Delhi

Dr Madhukar Shahi

MBBS, MD (Medicine), DM (Cardiology), DNB (Cardiology)

Director, Interventional Cardiology, Heart Institute

Medanta, Gurugram, Delhi-NCR

Dr Neeraj Bhalla

MBBS, MD, DM (Cardiology)

Director & Senior Consultant, Cardiology

BLK Super Specialty Hospital, Delhi

Dr (Prof) N.N Khanna

Interventional Cardiologist


Senior Consultant in Cardiology & Coordinator of Vascular Sciences

Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Delhi

Dr Praveen Chandra

MBBS, MD (General Medicine), DM (Cardiology)

Chairman, Interventional & Structural Heart Cardiolgy

Interventional Cardiology, Heart Institute

Medanta, Gurugram, Delhi-NCR

Dr Rajeev Rathi

MBBS, MD (General Medicine), DM (Cardiology)

Interventional Cardiologist

Director & Head of Trans Radial Interventional Programme

Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket, Delhi

Dr Rajneesh Kapoor

MBBS, MD (Internal Medicine), DNB

Senior Director, Interventional Cardiology

Interventional Cardiology, Heart Institute

Medanta, Gurugram, Delhi NCR


Dr Sanjiv Bhardwaj

MBBS,MD, DNB (Cardiology), DM (Cardiology)

Associate Director, Dept. of Interventional Cardiology (Adult)

Jaypee Hospital, Noida, Delhi-NCR


Dr Vivek Gupta


Senior Interventional Cardiologist

Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi

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